Dark spots are due to the natural pigment melanin, which gives skin its colour and is responsible for tanning in the summer. Spots have higher melanin content than the surrounding skin and thus dark patches are formed on the face, hands and other parts of the body. These spots are due to chronic cumulative effects of the sun and photo-aging or appear after a sunburn. They are treated with LASERs that destroy melanin, such as Alexandrite.
Crusts are formed at the treatment sites, which heal in approximately 10 days. After the treatment, the patient should use sun block and healing creams. This treatment is not performed in the summer or on tanned skin. Caution is required for dark complexions, as hypochromia may develop in the place of the spot.
Usually 1-2 sessions are required.
Adverse effects – hypochromia (i.e. a white spot in place of the dark one) or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (i.e. a darker spot), which are due either to higher energy than required or patient non-compliance with the instructions.
Dark spots should not be confused with melasma, i.e. diffuse pigmentation of the skin, usually appearing on different parts of the face post pregnancy, after careless sun exposure or even without a clear etiology.